Further studies on Clockmakers of the Northeast:
Daniel Burnap, Thomas Harland,
& the Suffield Tower Clock.


© Donn Haven Lathrop 1996

This paper is a continuation of an inadvertent series which began with a study of the horological works of Phinehas J. Bailey of Chelsea, Vermont. His relationships with other clockmakers of that area and era and his comments on them in his 'Memoirs' encouraged an examination of the lives, the relationships, and the works of several other early makers. Someone dropped a rock in my research puddle, and over the years the ripples have spread rather widely.

While it may seem that this paper makes a number of assumptions, it is instructive to recall that many discussions and conclusions---whether early or recent, verbal or written---of the vita of the early American clockmakers are also based on assumptions. The data are just not there in a complete and concrete form, and we have to interpret them as best we can, using all the pertinent, perhaps peripheral, data we have at the time. Later research, the discovery of new data, or a different interpretation of those data at hand may challenge or refute that which has been taken as Gospel for many years. It is with this perspective, and in this spirit, that this paper is presented. This paper is, indeed, written in the spirit of Mr. Hoopes' statement in his introduction to The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: "On these and many other subjects the present notes raise more questions than they answer. If they serve in some measure to encourage further study of the methods, customs, and products of our eighteenth-century craftsmen, both the author and the publisher will be well repaid for the efforts bestowed upon Daniel Burnap's papers."

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Background:


In 19621 Charles Bissell wrote that he had found the remains of the 'Suffield [Connecticut] Tower Clock', which he claimed was "made by Daniel Burnap of East Windsor and Coventry", based on Penrose R. Hoopes' book, The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap.2 The clock had graced the steeple of the Suffield Meeting House from (possibly as early as) 1786 until 1836, when "The steeple was literally pulled down and crashed to the ground, clock and all."3 The works, the weights, and the wood pendulum rod disappeared, but after a thirty year search are all eventually accounted for in Mr. Bissell's article. The works and the weights are now in the collection of the Connecticut Historical Society in Hartford. The pendulum rod was evidently used to prop up an overloaded apple tree branch, eventually broke, and rotted away.

Penrose R. Hoopes' The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap records that Burnap is known to have made at least one tower clock,4 most likely a clock for South Hadley, Massachusetts. A record of the order for this clock is dated "South Hadley, Nov. 2nd 1802". George D. Seymour5 wrote (perhaps speculatively---we don't know whether he actually visited the work-room) of "the unbelievably big models for the hands of a steeple clock." in Burnap's Andover attic work-room. Mr. Seymour also quotes the Burnap Papers (Appendix 6); concerning the "meeting-house clock for South Hadley", and the "steple" clock therefor, of which Burnap wrote; "I think it is a matter of uncertainty whether I shall be able to finish


1. BISSELL, Charles, The Suffield Tower Clock Works: Connecticut Historical Society BULLETIN, Vol. 27, No. 2, Pg. 54, ff.
2. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958. Pg. 116.
3. It is rather stunning that the clock and the pendulum rod survived this sort of treatment without being seriously damaged. I will leave speculation on this point to the reader, but it certainly sounds as though this is a real "Hail Mary" conclusion.
4. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958. Pg. 31.
5SEYMOUR, George Dudley, Daniel Burnap‹Master Clockmaker: NAWCC BULLETIN # 105, Pg. 811

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it so as to get it to you before sleighing." (Appendix 5.) But, there is no specific record by Burnap that he built the Suffield clock. His nephew's (Ela Burnap) correspondence on tower clocks from Rochester, New York, (February 20, 1837) asks for construction details for a tower clock, referring to "that clock we made when I was with you." Ela was born in 1784, therefore he could not have seen the "clock we made when I was with you" before 1799-1800, assuming he started his apprenticeship at 15 or 16.6 These dates for the start of an apprenticeship fit in rather nicely with the 1802 date for the South Hadley clock, but leave the question of the Suffield clock wide open. Ela had not yet been born in 1779, when his uncle very likely wrote his "Form of the Suffield Clock".

Hoopes7 later writes: "In transcribing the manuscript of Burnap's Memorandum Book...nothing has been added..., except as noted---punctuation, capitalization, and paragraphing." The immediate conclusion on reading through this transcription is that all the data in the Memorandum Book are a sequence of notes made by Burnap during his "working with Mr. Harland". It should be noted that this is his Memorandum Book, not his Shop Records. It is most curious that the description8 of the Suffield Clock appears in these notes, and not in some other form later in Burnap's accounts. His sub-title: "Form of the Suffield Clock", and the description9 of the clock read as though he were taking notes in class. The various sketches (some appear to be tracings of various tools) preceding the 'receipt' for the "Form of the Suffield Clock" strongly suggest that Burnap was taking notes
6. Burnap advertised in the Connecticut Courant, 4 April, 1791, for apprentices; "active boys about 15 or 16 years old.", therefore Ela Burnap should have been about 15 years old.
7. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: Pg 107. Also verified by an examination of the Burnap microfilm record.
8. Ibid. Pg. 116.
9. Ibid. Pg. 116.

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assiduously, not assimilating the information over the years of an apprenticeship. Harland was known to hold classes10 on various subjects for his 'pupils'---his apprentices and journeymen. Why not a lecture on "The Specifications for an 'English Pattern' Tower Clock"?

In corroboration of Hoopes' statement above, the microfilm of Burnap's Record Book #2 begins thus:
"Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779. Then I began to work with Mr. Harland at clock making, and for further improvement of said business, I now make this receipt...",
then segues into various drawings and 'receipts'---which 'receipts' are detailed descriptions of how to make a clock, from plates to dial, how to set the 'Temper of Tools', to the 'Form of the Suffield Clock', etc.

Three items are of extreme interest in this excerpt: "Then I began to work...at clockmaking...", "...for further improvement of said business...", and the "Form of the Suffield Clock". The first is a very curious statement for Burnap to make if he was indeed apprenticed with Harland. One would think that an apprentice had done a good deal of clockmaking by the end of his time. The phrase: "...further improvement of said business...", implies that Burnap had already acquired some facility in clockmaking---but from whom?---and, that as a possible journeyman, he was going for his Masters degree, so to speak. It is rather unlikely that Burnap gained and refined all of his clockmaking talents in less than a year. The sequence of the 'receipts', from that for an 8-day clock through the 'Form of the Suffield Clock', 'A receipt for making Gold beeds', and the 'Prices of gold and silver by weight' to the construction of a 'chime clock' again suggests that these items were all written down as notes derived from his observations, or from a series of 'lectures' from Mr. Harland. There is certainly no visible break in the written


10. WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker, Watchmaker and Entrepreneur: NAWCC BULLETIN #295, Pg. 190.

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narrative nor in the sequence of the (microfilmed) Memorandum Book's pages to suggest that the description of the 'Form of the Suffield Clock' was written at any other time than that during which Burnap was taking notes. It doesn't strike me as logical that Burnap would recopy all of the drawings and the 'receipts' in his Memorandum Book at a later date.

...and the beginning of...


Although there is no known record that Harland himself ever made a tower clock, he did advertise in 177311 that he made 'church clocks'. Someone made the 'Suffield Tower Clock', but I don't think it was Burnap. He either copied down the specifications for that clock or he took his own measurements of an already-constructed clock on display before its installation; whether he did so in Norwich (which I suspect) or elsewhere is immaterial. I will propose that the 'Suffield Tower Clock' was made by Thomas Harland, or someone else working in the area at that time---most likely someone else. It is thought by some that Harland trained in England---but where, and with whom, no one knows for certain.12 Later research by Mr. William Willard postulates that the Harland name originated in Ireland,13 and from thence the Harland family moved on to Paisley, a small town southwest of



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Glasgow, Scotland.14 Mr. Willard proposes that Thomas Harland could have apprenticed with a John Scott of Paisley.15 The 'chair-frame' clock is noted primarily as an English design native to Yorkshire, not the Glasgow area. Regardless of the specifics of Harland's origins and training, it is possible that he still had contacts in Britain who could have been of assistance in procuring a clock, if such was the case. In view of the changing political atmosphere under William Pitt the Younger, by the year 1786 the probability that the Colonies were once again importing material from England is very real.16 Quite a few imported clocks in the Northeast have been documented‹the earliest possibly being the 1702 (maker and fate unknown), very likely one-handed clock17 installed in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Even Gawen Brown's 1766 tower clock in Boston is considered by some scholars18 to be an import. The 'Suffield Clock' is a 'chair-frame' clock, a peculiarly British


11. Ibid. Pg. 187, and
BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich; Connecticut Historical Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, Pg. 228. It is noted that Mr. Bailey's rendering of this advertisement does not include the entire text.
12. BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich; Pg. 228 ff.
13. WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker, Watchmaker and Entrepreneur: Pg. 185
14. See BULLETIN #227, Pg. 741: Ms. Sara Steiner's notes on Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity: "Mr. Dodge served his apprenticeship with a Scotchman, named Harland, of Norwich, CT."
15. Note the comment in Ms. Sara Steiner's Clockmaking in Rhode Island and Vicinity, concerning Seril Dodge's apprenticeship with "a Scotchman named Harland of Norwich, CT", in the Account of the Seventy-first Anniversary of the Providence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers in BULLETIN #227, Pg 741ff.
16. HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W., A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks: Printed by Addison C. Getchell & Son, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. 1980. Pg. 266
17. WATERS, Thomas Franklin, Ipswich, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony: The Ipswich Historical Society, Ipswich, Massachusetts. 1905. Vol. 1, Pg. 424. The first clock was replaced in 1762 (Vol. II, Pg. 440.) and is currently being rebuilt after being damaged in a fire, and:
FELT, Joseph Barlow, History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton: C. Folsom, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1834. Pg. 243, ff.
18. HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W., A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks: Pg. 262.

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design, but there are certain aspects of the construction of this particular clock which point more toward an American rather than an English origin. While its construction follows an obviously English design, the use of wood for the base and the construction of the strap frame both suggest that it was made in this country---the English generally used all-metal frames after the 'doorframe' clock19 had fallen out of favor---the Colonies were so poor in metals that the use of wood was a re­invention of necessity.

It may be argued that Suffield is much closer to East Windsor than it is to Norwich, but neither distance nor the presence of a resident clockmaker has ever been a barrier to the procurement and installation of a tower clock. At this juncture we will ignore imports, although very early English, French, and German imports have been noted (and still exist) in various locations from Massachusetts to South Carolina. In 1804, Major George Holbrook, then at work in Brookfield, Massachusetts, installed a clock20 and a bell in Chester, New Hampshire, nearly 70 miles to the northeast, and then in 1810 installed a clock and a bell21 in East Windsor---Burnap's back yard---about 50 miles away. As the crow flies, it is about 80 miles (with a major river and two mountain ranges intervening) from Charlestown, New Hampshire, to Troy, New York. In 1824, Stephen Hasham loaded a tower clock in a wagon, hauled it over the river and the mountains to Troy---in the back yard of makers such as the Hanks and Meneely. His clock still stands, albeit mute,


19. BEESON, C. F. C., Clockmaking in Oxfordshire 1400-1850: The Antiquarian Horological Society. Printed by the Thanet Printing Works, Church Hill, Ramsgate, England. 1962
20. PARSONS, Charles. S., Blasdel Clockmakers: Unpublished manuscript in the Library of the NAWCC. November, 1957. Pg. 5
21. SHELLEY, Frederick M., The Tower Clocks of Windsor, CT: NAWCC BULLETIN; # 299, Pg. 773, and The Holbrook Dynasty: #300, Pg. 31., and
PARSONS, Charles S., Blasdell Clockmakers: Pg. 5, (unpublished manuscript) records this installation in 1804 by Major George Holbrook in Chester, New Hampshire.

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broken, and covered with the neglectful grime of a century, in the steeple of the First Baptist Church in Troy. In 1840, a George Handel Holbrook (Holbrook worked in East Medway [now Millis], about 20 miles southwest of Boston) clock and bell were installed in Chelsea,22 Vermont---nearly 140 miles away. Again, as the crow flies, it is roughly 50 miles overland from Norwich to Suffield, therefore the distance involved certainly would not have been a barrier. Transportation by water from Norwich to Suffield would have been even simpler.

Regardless that Burnap evidently did not record cash payments for many of the clocks he made, one would think that he would somehow have made some mention of the construction of a clock of this size---and very likely the sizeable sum he charged for the clock. An endeavor of this magnitude could have required the services of a blacksmith for the iron frame, possibly a carpenter for the dove-tailed wooden frame and (probably) the hands, and certainly a great deal of publicity upon the occasion of the clock's installation. Even though we know he made at least one tower clock, we just don't know which one it was, Suffield or South Hadley. Mr. Bissell saved us a bit of horological history to puzzle over, obviously with the best of intentions, but there is the distinct possibility that he put two and two together and got something other than four.

...heretical arguments.


The Suffield Tower Clock aside for the moment, there appears to be some question as to whether Burnap actually apprenticed with Harland. Burnap wrote (in a remaining fragment of his [probable] first Record Book) that on "Tuesday, December ye 9th AD 1777. Then I began to keep school att Easthaddam. I was then in ye 19th Year of my Age", with a repetition of that statement for "November


22. What goes around, comes around. I started in Chelsea, did I not?

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ye 10th, AD 1778. Then I began to keep school att Easthaddam. I was then in ye 20th Year of my Age" and then "June ye 1st, AD 1779. Then I went to live at Windham, and Returned on Monday ye 5th day of July." He later wrote that on "Wednesday, September ye 5th AD 1779. Then I went to live at Norwich." and "Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779. Then I began to work with Mr. Harland at clock making..." The last of the entries reads: "Thursday, July ye 7th, AD 1780. Then I went to work with Mr. J. Fairchild at Windsor." That's an eleven month 'apprenticeship' in the days of 5 to 7 year apprenticeships. It may be argued that because the course of Burnap's apprenticeship coincided with the upheavals of the Revolutionary War, as a consequence, he was granted some sort of release to teach school during those two winters, but where was he, and what was he doing, in the interim? As far as we know, none of Harland's other apprentices were similarly affected by the war.

Daniel Burnap was born 1 November, 1759. If he apprenticed at 14 in 1773, his term should have run until 1780. Philip Zea23 wrote that Harland insisted on a full seven year term for his apprentices, which is reasonable given Harland's probable training under the provisions of Queen Elizabeth's 1563 Statute of Artificiers,24 a law which had survived with little change for over two centuries. This statute established a uniform national requirement which specified a seven year apprenticeship for either master or journeyman; the apprentice, regardless of family position or wealth, served his term---period. Burnap's record of at least three major interruptions---between late 1777 and mid-1779---in his probable indenture is


23. ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons: Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper Connecticut River Valley, 1793-1811. Unpublished manuscript in the Special Collections of Baker Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1979. Pg. 7.
24. TREVELYAN, George M.; A History of England, Doubleday & Co. Inc., Garden City, New York. 1953. Vol. II, Pg. 137.

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unusual, to say the least. We don't know exactly how long each of these 'interruptions' lasted (except the last---a little over a month). It was customary (and necessary) that school was taught during the winter months so the children could work on the family farm during the more labor-intensive seasons. It is highly unlikely that Daniel had some sort of dispensation from Harland which permitted him to continue his apprenticeship via correspondence course. Either that or Burnap began his apprenticeship at the age of 11. Mr. Willard (pers. com.) has discovered that the 14-year old Burnap was in Coventry collecting old brass and other materials in aid of the coming war effort, and that the following June (1774) he was living with a schoolteacher aunt in Windham.

Burnap and his alleged apprenticeship with Harland have defied any sort of research logic (as have many of those who have blithely written of his life and activities) ever since I read that Stephen Hasham apprenticed with him, while I was doing research on Hasham.25 I then ended up doing research on Burnap, a task that bears a distinct resemblance to "carrying coals to Newcastle," considering the paper and ink that have been expended by others on him and his particulars. Hasham was orphaned in Grafton, Massachusetts, in 1777, when he was 13. And remember that the Revolutionary War was then two years into its course, and not going too well for the Colonies. It is ridiculous to expect that an orphaned 13-year old---the eldest of three remaining children---would hike the fifty plus (as the crow flies) miles to Coventry, Connecticut, and become the apprentice of someone who, if you believe all the stories about Burnap, was in the midst of his own "apprenticeship"---in Norwich, many miles away from Coventry. In other words, Burnap was only 18 years old, couldn't possibly have achieved his mastery as a clock maker, would shortly become a schoolmaster "at Easthaddam." and wasn't even around to apprentice to. However, Ezra S. Stearns wrote in 191426 that Hasham apprenticed with Willard, and that statement has been faithfully and blindly copied ever since. A quick check of dates and circumstances would have avoided this error---Simon Willard lost his first wife and his infant son "to some epidemic prevailing in Grafton at that time"27---an epidemic that also likely killed Hasham's father and step-mother, and Burnap was nowhere around.

And who was the mysterious Mr. J. Fairchild with whom Burnap worked after his "work with Mr. Harland at clock making..."? It may have hyperbole on his part, but Burnap's first advertisement of 4 April, 1791, which states that he, having "for a number of years applied principally to the business of Clockmaking...takes this method to inform the publick that...Clockmaking is intended as the growing business of his shop..." really makes one wonder at the specific emphasis on clockmaking, because he had already trained the majority of his own apprentices during that "number of years". We know that Burnap married in 1782, and acquired property in 1785, but one still wonders exactly what transpired during those years. Since Burnap intended "Clockmaking...as the growing business of his shop" in 1791, it is odd that he was then taxed as a goldsmith in 1797 and 1798, rather than as a clockmaker. His account book lists the sale of four clocks between 1799 and 1802.

Chris Bailey wrote28 that Burnap "began his work at Norwich 8 September, 1779", but I find this difficult to reconcile with his later (apparently unsupported)


25. NAWCC BULLETIN # 293, Pg. 723
26. STEARNS, Ezra S., Old Clocks in Fitchburg. II‹Brass Clocks. Read before the Society, 21 April, 1913. Proceedings of the Fitchburg Historical Society. Vol. V., 1914. Pg. 135.
26. WILLARD, J. W., Simon Willard and his Clocks, Dover Publications, New York. 1968. Pg. 5. The Grafton connection has, of course, prompted speculation that Hasham apprenticed with a Willard in Grafton. In that in 1777, Benjamin W. was in York, Pennsylvania, Aaron was in the midst of his Army service, and Simon had lost his first wife and their son to an "epidemic prevailing in Grafton", the speculation is rather footless.
28. BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich, Pg. 231

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statement29 that "He must have begun training with Harland about 1774 when fifteen years old. He completed his apprenticeship but returned in September, 1779, and worked as a journeyman in Harland's shop until July, 1780." Logically, yes, but there is a bit too much of an overlap in those dates, and this is difficult to reconcile with Burnap's own statement that he "began to keep school" in 1777, after a (possibly) mere three years with Harland. The entire question of Burnap's apprenticeship seems to hinge on the similarities of his and Harland's work, and on the recorded eleven months he spent with Harland. Ela Burnap's letter from Rochester (10 October, 1827) about meeting a Mr. Baldwin,30 "[who] served his time with Mr. Harland, says he knows you and desires to be remembered." is often quoted in support of Burnap's apprenticeship to Harland. Jedidiah Baldwin completed his (seven-year) apprenticeship with Harland31 in 1791, and would have encountered Burnap during the latter's known 11-month sojourn in Norwich. If Seril Dodge had encountered Burnap as a fellow apprentice, he would have mentioned him in his interview for the 'Mechanics Festival' held in Providence, Rhode Island, on 28 February, 1860.32 Dodge did mention Jedidiah Baldwin, who left Norwich in 1791, after Burnap's 'apprenticeship', and Jedidiah's brother Jabez, who left Hanover, New Hampshire in about 1798, after his apprenticeship with Jedidiah. The noted (and commented upon at length) similarities of Harland and


29. Ibid. Pg. 236
30. ZEA, Philip, Clockmaking and Society at the River and the Bay--Jedidiah and Jabez Baldwin, 1790-1820: Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual proceedings. Boston University: Boston. 1981. Pg. 53., and
HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: Pg. 31
31. ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons: Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper Connecticut River Valley, 1793-1811. Pg. 6
32. See BULLETIN #227, Pg. 740 ff: Ms. Sara Steiner's notes on Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity.

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Burnap clocks, i.e., the engraving of the dial, the dial mounting technique---or lack of technique as some would have it---could easily arise from observations Burnap made during his short stay with Harland.

Continuum...


In sum, the attribution of the 'Suffield Tower Clockworks' to Burnap's hand is based on Mr. Bissell's assumption that this clock was made by Daniel Burnap, solely on the basis of the specifications which are written in Burnap's Memorandum Book. Daniel Burnap's apprenticeship with Thomas Harland is also based on conjecture; there is no specific record that Burnap signed an indenture as an apprentice, nor did he apparently spend any great (consecutive) length of time in Norwich. Recent data reveals that Burnap required that his apprentices sign an indenture33 (Daniel Porter; 18 February, 1793). The entire fabric of Burnap's apprenticeship literally hangs on Burnap's statement: "Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779. Then I began to work with Mr. Harland at clock making...". It is extremely curious that these eleven months seem to have been transmuted into a full-blown apprenticeship.

Rather bluntly, Burnap was not an apprentice of Thomas Harland's. He worked as a journeyman in Harland's shop. He did not build the so-called "Suffield Clock," but he did record the particulars of its construction. There may well be an unrecorded tower clock maker still waiting to be discovered.

It is all too easy to raise doubts about the work and the training of someone who lived two hundred years ago. But, this 'all too easy' is immediately made difficult by the necessity of resolving those doubts. I don't know what I will be able to resolve. I do know that I don't like to see another 'anonymous' or 'attributed' tower clock. I may have tried to put two and two together---and it may be that my answer is not four. And perhaps that will lead someone else to look into this matter and correct me. That's what research is all about, whether horological, geological, or any other -ogical you wish. Someone started somewhere, years ago, and from that point on various researchers have built on that initial foundation. It is, however, extremely


33. Sperling, David A. MD: Feature article in Maine Antiques Digest, April, 1996, Pg. 13-F

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critical that the researcher must be as accurate as possible. The (either careless or inadvertent) repetition of errors perpetrated at some point in the past over which the passage of time has drawn its obscuring veil must be avoided at all costs---the suspicious fact must always bear its scarlet letter. The building resting on that initial foundation may be re-modelled as later (and we hope, correct) data appears. The seeker after truth is advised to check all the writings on a subject, rather than relying on any single one. An appropriate analogue is the thesis writer's need to check all of the literature affecting a particular subject, rather than only the most recent, or a randomly selected list of literature.

The reader will notice that in this country horological research has gone far beyond the simplicity of Hannah Moore's The Old Clock Book, but hers was an extremely difficult and pioneering task---there was not the vast collection of data available to her that the modern researcher takes for granted. Neither Mr. Bissell nor Mr. Hoopes had the resources and references which we have today, but I suspect they both did the best they could with the material at hand. That's all that's needed.

Counterpoint, anyone?




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BIBLIOGRAPHY


BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich; Connecticut Historical Society, Vol. 51, No. 4.

BEESON, C. F. C., Clockmaking in Oxfordshire 1400-1850: The Antiquarian Horological Society. Printed by the Thanet Printing Works, Church Hill, Ramsgate, England. 1962.

BISSELL, Charles, The Suffield Tower Clock Works: Connecticut Historical Society BULLETIN, Vol. 27, No. 2.

Connecticut Courant, 4 April, 1791.

FELT, Joseph Barlow, History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton: C. Folsom, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1834.

FLYNT, Henry N. & FALES, Martha Gandy, The Heritage Foundation Collection of Silver, with Biographical Sketches of New England Silversmiths, 1625-1825: The Heritage Foundation, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts. 1968.

HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958.

HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W., A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks: Printed by Addison C. Getchell & Son, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. 1980.

PARSONS, Charles. S., Blasdel Clockmakers: Unpublished manuscript in the Library of the NAWCC. November, 1957.

SEYMOUR, George Dudley, Daniel Burnap---Master Clockmaker: NAWCC BULLETIN # 105.

SHELLEY, Frederick M., The Tower Clocks of Windsor, Connecticut: NAWCC BULLETIN; # 299.

____, The Holbrook Dynasty: NAWCC BULLETIN; #300.

SPERLING, David A. MD: Feature article in Maine Antiques Digest, April, 1996.

STEINER, Sarah, Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity: NAWCC BULLETIN #227.

TREVELYAN, George M.; A History of England, Doubleday & Co. Inc., Garden City, New York. 1953. Vol. II.

STEARNS, Ezra S., Old Clocks in Fitchburg. II---Brass Clocks. Read before the Society, 21 April, 1913. Proceedings of the Fitchburg Historical Society. Vol. V., 1914.

WATERS, Thomas Franklin, Ipswich, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony: The Ipswich Historical Society, Ipswich, Massachusetts. 1905. Vol. 1.

WILLARD, J. W. Simon Willard and His Clocks: Dover Publications, New York. 1968.

WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker, Watchmaker and Entrepreneur: NAWCC BULLETIN #295.

ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons: Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper Connecticut River Valley, 1793-1811. Unpublished manuscript in the Special Collections of Baker Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1979.

____, Clockmaking and Society at the River and the Bay--Jedidiah and Jabez Baldwin, 1790 1820: Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual proceedings. Boston University: Boston. 1981.


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